Giacomo Balla - Flight of the Swallows


History Of Graphic Designing


Abstraction demands imagination and imaginary freedom. Beautiful freedom, which makes honest self-expression possible. Terrible freedom, going to say anything. Freedom was at the heart of the future. Wanting to free itself from the bondage of antiquity, artists incorporated themselves into its principles. Under the auspices of futurism, Artcold takes on any imaginary character. It may be brief. It may be imperfect. This is ridiculous. F. D. It could take any form imagined by Marinetti calling them “young, strong, living futurists.”





Automobile practice can be considered ancient technology. Self-propelled, passenger street vehicles have been in some form since 1768. But it was not until 1886 that Carl Pence invented the first gas-powered production car, making high-speed personal travel a reality for anyone with the financial means to own one. Italian writer Filippo Tamasso Marinetti was one such privileged individual, and he was fascinated by how gas-powered cars enabled ordinary humans to reach higher speeds. When a steering wheel passed him from behind, he wanted the world to look, sound, and smell.
In 1908, Marinetti crashed his car near Milan. The incident caused a storm in Marinetti. The bikes were slow and reminiscent of the past. The automobile’s future was fast and predictable. In Marinetti’s view, the past came his way and almost killed him. At least philosophically, he decided he would direct it when the last time came his way. He wrote about his car accident in a dramatic, poetic commentary on The Joy of Mechanical Force, using the story as a metaphorical justification for the destruction of history. The article was published in Italian and French newspapers in February 1909, in the first half of a document called the Futurist Manifesto.

Giacomo Balla - Flight of the Swallows
Giacomo Balla – Flight of the Swallows


In his future statement, Marinetti actively advocated for courage, bravery, creative freedom, and adaptation to speed. He argued that there is a greater focus on old art traditions when living artists are discouraged or ignored. He wrote, “We want to free Italy from its professors, archaeologists, guides and ancient artists. Italy has been a market for the best second-hand brokers for a very long time. “Many artists from many countries, especially those involved in creating completely concise art, shared Marinetti’s vision.
Differently, Marinetti also argued for violence, war, and misconceptions in his list of future goals. He wrote, “We want to glorify war – the only health in the world – militarism, patriotism, the destructive gesture of anarchism, the best ideas for killing and the slander of woman. We want to fight against museums, libraries, moralism, feminism, and all opportunistic and useless cowards. “Many artists are indebted to the first part of his report, which contributed to better artistic freedom, while the second part unfortunately led directly to a mood that aided the rise of fascism.
Giacomo Balla - Speeding Automobile, 1913, Oil on canvas, 56 cm x 69 cm
Giacomo Balla – Speeding Automobile, 1913, Oil on canvas, 56 cm x 69 cm



In 1910, five future artists – Umberto Pocheoni, Carlo Carr, Luigi Russolo, Giacomo Balla, and Gino Severini – began to establish specific aesthetic guidelines for future art. They published a report on future painters, which argued directly on behalf of the abstract, “Portraits, type painters, lake painters, mountain painters. We have enough from these weak painters during the country holidays. ”
It continued, “By pursuing the future with enthusiasm, we will do the same: destroy the worship of the past, the passion with the ancestors, the education and the education system. Completely invalidate all types of shades. Elevate all efforts for originality, no matter how brave, no matter how violent. Be brave and proud of the smear of “madness” that tries to deceive all madmen. Consider art critics useless and dangerous. Rebellion against the tyranny of words: “Harmony” and “good taste” and other loose expressions used to destroy the works of Rembrandt, Goya, Rodin … used in the past to wipe out all art themes and subjects. “
Benedetta Cappa - Velocità di motoscafo (speedboat), 1924, Oil on canvas, 70 x 100 cm, Galleria d’Arte Moderna
Benedetta Cappa – Velocità di motoscafo (speedboat), 1924, Oil on canvas, 70 x 100 cm, Galleria d’Arte Moderna


The painter Umberto Boccioni was one of the leading architects of the Futurist Painters’ Report. A student of Giacomo Palla, he trained in Boccioni and sectarian techniques. He was interested in how the mind could “complete” an image through the interpretation of abstract elements. After going to Paris and meeting the Cubists, he devoted himself to expanding their ideas. In summary, he sought to portray the fantastic nature of the motor-driven era. He wrote, “We integrate every moment (time, place, form, color-tone) and thus draw the picture.” Boccioni, one of the greatest painters, thinkers, and writers of his time, died in 1916 at the age of 33, just as his ideas began to flourish.
Giacomo Balla, the author of Boccioni, focused on one key concept: dynamism. The word dynamism refers to action. It expresses a combination of speed, movement, and sound. Balla wanted to capture more vitality as the Cubists tried to express a four-dimensional sense by depicting multiple perspectives and planes simultaneously. When separatism told the eyes of the audience to mix colors, Balla constructed images that asked the other elements of an image to construct color, line, surface, and shape, and to make other kinds of connections between the eye and the mind. His efforts were inherently concise because they sought to portray the essence of life, rather than portraying a representative image. His paintings, Flight of the Slows and Speeding Automobile, made in 1913, capture his ideas.

Wyndham Lewis - Vorticist painting, Red Duet, 1914
Wyndham Lewis – Vorticist painting, Red Duet, 1914


Future painters focused on a palette of bright, unreal colors. They put colors on each other for an emotional effect. They used sharp angles and strong lines to express the sense of light and speed. They embraced the chaos, created chaos within their images, and expressed a new, urban, modern, technologically charged aesthetic.
Their restructured, confident style directly influenced numerous abstract art movements, confirming the trend towards a simultaneous emerging contraction in many cities and countries. This led to Rayonism, which was primarily explored by Russian abstract painters, who focused on extreme angles and colors in an attempt to express the essence of light. This encouraged zero binding, a specific subgroup of second-generation future painting, which focused on depicting brief aerial landscapes. It also helped to support the theoretical foundations of movements such as fascism, hegemony, and creationism.
Joseph Stella - Battle of Lights, Coney Island, 1913, Oil on canvas, 195.6 × 215.3 cm
Joseph Stella – Battle of Lights, Coney Island, 1913, Oil on canvas, 195.6 × 215.3 cm


The aesthetic interests of Italian future artists were a direct inspiration to many international artists and movements. In Britain, the painter Wyndham Lewis built on the ideas of both the future and Cubism. The goal of vorticism was to capture movement, speed, and modernity, but with rough edges, flat image planes in a clean style, and close to creationism, hegemony, and de Stiegel.
The modern American landscape was represented by the Italian American painter Joseph Stella from Italy. Stella studied art in New York and lived there from 1896 to 1909, but she hated the United States and returned to Italy under the influence of the growing European modernist scene. After gaining immeasurable amounts of new friendships with Umberto Pocheoni, Gertrude Stein, and Picasso, Stella returned to the United States and changed her technique to capture New York in an epic and unique futuristic-American style.

Zaha Hadid - Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre in Azerbaijan
Zaha Hadid – Heydar Aliyev Cultural Centre in Azerbaijan


The most powerful legacy of futurism is the optimistic rejection of history. After all, what do contemporary artists have to do if everything has already been done in the past? Although the future aesthetic impact may have lasted only a short time, it was its theoretical impact that gave Thadists the courage to actively recreate art. This is what inspired the innovative thinking of surrealists, abstract expressionists, and ideological artists. It has given strength and inspiration to today’s neo-futurists like architect Zaha Hadith who died in 2016 at the age of 65.
By expressing poetically and emotionally the desire for freedom from the past, the futurists dared to take abstract artists seriously in their struggle. While their rhetoric about violence, war, and misconceptions may be disgusting, backward, and destructive, the aggressive tone of the futurists may have been necessary to break down barriers that prevented them from exploring the full depth of the artist’s imagination.

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