Russian Constructivism and Graphic Design
Constructivism was a creative movement in art, design, and architecture that began in Russia in 1913, but gained real prominence after the 1917 Russian Revolution. This revolution was a period of great dissent and change, which led to the overthrow of the Tsarist regime in favor of the Bolsheviks.
Russian creationism was seen as a philosophy rather than a style and reflected a belief in art for social change rather than personal expression. Russian creationists were more advocates of functional art and design than of decorative, expressive art (such as Easel painting) hung on walls. It echoed the revolutionary mood of the times when the bourgeois culture was transformed by the revolutionary proletarian movement.
The tools and techniques of the more traditional, iconographic, and art styles were replaced by “structured” illuminations and strong typography. Russian Constructivism had characteristically low color palettes,
often red, black, and sometimes yellow. They often had a circular and angular type and diagonal elements with images. The resulting work was quite dramatic, with layered images and powerful type treatments. The work was exciting, often staggering and shocking, in line with their goal of transforming the community. This movement was a dramatic change from previous, regular movements, and philosophies of art.
Although originally aimed at political news, the creative style was found in all kinds of product advertisements and posters, book covers, and their interiors. Three of the most influential designers of the Russian creative period were Alexander Rodchenko, the Stenberg brothers, and, to a lesser extent, El Lisitsky, a futurist, influential creative movement. Here are a small background and sample of their works. Most of the works speak for themselves, but I have provided explanations for those who call for it. Here the beginning of Constructivism.
Alexander (Aleksandr) Rodchenko (1891–1956)
This Russian designer, photographer, painter, Constructivism and sculptor were considered one of the founders of the Russian creative movement. In fact, the word “creative” was originally coined by the artist Cosmic Malevich to refer to Rodchenko’s work. Although his original focus was painting, he later continued to play with photography, typography and photography, later referred to as montage or photomontage. Easel avoided painting as he called it ‘industrial art’ – that is, art with a social purpose and message to the people. Although most of his earlier works were for political purposes and to change the world, he used this art movement to advertise ordinary products such as beer, pacifiers, cookies, watches, and other consumer products.
In March 1923, Rodchenko published an article in which he said, “Now there is a new method of interpretation: a collection of printed and photographic material focused on a particular subject. It is distributed with example by drawing, by providing a plethora of objects of excellent demonstrative value and hope. ”
El Lissitzky (Lazar Markovich Lissitzky) 1890–1941
This Russian-born painter, designer, and typist is associated with hegemonic and creative movements. He studied engineering and architecture in addition to art, giving a very straightforward, logical approach to everything he did. His work, especially embracing the dominant philosophy, was very concise with minimal color, geometric shapes, and, in some cases, deep symbolism. He believed that, like all constructivist, art should be used as an agent of change. El Lisitsky designed many books, posters, exhibitions, and other types of Soviet propaganda. Like most of the works produced in that era, most of his works are political. These quotes from L. Lysitsky express his two design philosophies: “Typography design speakers must do optically the things they create through the voice and gestures of their thoughts,” and “Art can no longer be a mirror, it must act as an organizer of the people’s consciousness … any representation of photography As people do not easily understand. “His thoughtful, somewhat cerebral works influenced modern art, including the Baohas and de Stij movements.
The Stenberg Brothers (Georgii 1900–1933 and Vladimir 1899–1982)
The new Bolshevik government fully supported the film industry, especially the power to spread and spread their new message targeting the people. At the time, more than 60% of the population was illiterate, so the architect’s work with its strong, jar images and powerful design was able to catch their eye and help spread this new ideology.
Stenberg’s primary technique is a montage. Their posters are designed to be spectacular and stunning. “We deal with the matter in a free matter … ignoring the actual proportions … turning the figures upside down; in short, we use everything that can keep busy passers-by in their tracks.” They often used unusual angles, extreme foresight, and close proximity, and their posters still hold today, and still appear to be as striking as they did in their day. Posted in.