Art Nouveau

History Of Graphic Designing

What Is Art Nouveau?

If you’ve been to Paris or seen in the photos, you’ll recognize the plant-like gates that act as the city’s subway system or the gateways to the metro, which rotate with unique characters. In many words for Art Nouveau in France, Style Metro is very persistent, thanks to the durable design for Hector Guymart gates. Released during the 1900 Paris World’s Fair, the design marks the beginning of the Art Nouveau movement.
But it started many years ago. From the 1880s until World War I, artwork, design materials and architecture in Western Europe and the United States sprang up with sinful, unruly lines. Taking notes from Rococo arches, Celtic graphic motifs, Japanese masters Ande Hiroshike and Katsushika Hokusai, and William Blake’s Innocence songs (1789), Art Nouveau artists took the plant shapes seen in nature and then transformed them into flat and concise elegant, charcoal…

The origin of the movement

The term Art Nouveau first appeared in the Belgian art magazine L’Art Modern in 1884 to describe the work of Les Wing, a community of 20 progressive artists, including James Encer. These painters responded to the leading theories of the French architect Eugene-Emmanuel Violet-le-Doug and the British critic John Ruskin, who argued for the unity of all art. In December 1895, the German-born art dealer Siegfried Bing opened a gallery in Paris called “Maison L’Art Novio”. Branching from the famous Japanese pottery and Ukiyo-e prints, he promoted this “new art” in the ping gallery, selecting furniture, fabrics, wallpaper, and materials.

Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau

 

By encouraging Art Nouveau to flow organic forms and forms from one object to another, the theorists of the movement won over greater integration of art and design. Following the democratic ideas of the British arts and crafts movement, this drive was as political as it was aesthetic. The philosophical father of the movement, English designer and entrepreneur William Morris, defined its main objectives: The other use is to give people pleasure in the things they have to do. ”Morris hated the working conditions nurtured by the Industrial Revolution, hated the low-quality brick-and-mortar made by factories and piled on the houses of the era.
He insisted that functional design should be integrated with the objects of everyday life, and that the combination of his aesthetics and ethics rejected the heavy decorative qualities of the 19th century, especially the intricate, almost Victorian-era suffocation. His ideas emerged as many distinct national flavors. In Scotland, the Glasto style was rectilinear; In Italy, Arte Nova or Style Liberty, after London-based Liberty & Co; Style knol (“noodle”) or coupe de fout (“whip”) in Belgium; Jugendstil (“young style”) in Germany and Austria; Tiffany dress in the United States; And in France, Style Metro, Finn-de-Cycle and Belly Epoch. For some, Art Nouveau was the last integrated style; For others, it’s not just one style, but many. Like all art movements until the late 20th century, it was dominated by men.

Leaders of Art Nouveau

The man who best expressed the steep historical curve of Art Novi, like a flame that burned brightly but succinctly, the young Englishman Aubrey Vincent Piertsley, his perverse feelings made him the most controversial figure in Art Novi. Inspired by the brutal style of American expatriate James Abbott McNeill Whistler and the Japanese posters of Henry de Toulouse-Lodrech, Beardsley began his formal art career at just 19 years old. The famous pre-Raphaelite painter Sir Edward Burn-Jones praised the untrained Beardsley’s drawings in 1891.
Beardsley’s India ink illustrations for Oscar Wilde’s Salome play set many essential Art Now ideals. Their silhouettes, flat decorative patterns, completely different, and restrained but changeable lines quickly gained international recognition for the artist. At Salomon’s request, Herod depicts the biblical story of St. John the Baptist being beheaded, and the map for “J’ai baisé ta bouche, Iokanaan” drops with erotic images: folds of cloth, bloodstains and ends of hair. On the lower right, a flower blooms in the dark, while on the upper left a black path echoes the dark thoughts of a salomo. Thanks to his legitimate talents — not to mention his passion for erotic and sometimes pornographic things — although early dying of tuberculosis in 1898, Beardsley became a touchstone for some of Art Nouveau’s most recognizable artists.

While Beardsley was an untrained marvel, Gustav Klimt attended the Vienna School of Arts and Crafts (Kunstkwerbschule). Klimt’s early works, such as his murals for the new Burke Theater in the Ringstrass, Vienna, met the educational and bourgeois expectations of art with natural depictions of historical scenes.
But not all of Climat’s work applies to such hereditary barriers. The atmosphere of erotic love and eroticism that pervaded Vienna in the 1900s exerted a powerful influence on the artist. Like the philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche, Klimt saw the artist as an ambassador of truth, not fiction. In 1894, he commissioned a commission for murals in the Assembly Hall of the University of Vienna. Instead of representing the medical field in a logical or refined way, Climat portrayed chaos and darkness, tying naked bodies together and the pregnant abdomen with hidden skeletons.
The scandal eventually ended Klimt’s academic career, prompting him to find and serve as the first leader of the Sessions session, a radical art novio group based in Vienna that brought together artists, designers and architects. They collaborated on the principle of Kesamtkunstewerk, or “Total Artwork,” aimed at spiritual improvement through a combination of beauty and application. Joseph Hoffman’s design for Brussels’ Balloy Stocklet’s dining room, featuring spiral-filled arboreal murals, exemplifies this goal.
However, his iconic portrait style earned him a place in the historical highlights of art. Kiss (1907), perhaps his most famous work, shows the basic but revolutionary elements of his distinctive nonsense: the shape and rich design flattened into patches of gold leaf used on canvas. Symbolizing the alignment of surfaces with love, Kiss locks the central figures into dense shapes, trapping the bodies of lovers in a gold ring like jewelry. They embrace, a membrane-like glossy dress, and the wall of flowers falls. This curious eroticism, known to Klimt, sparked the works of subsequent artists, including his defender Econ Shail.

 

The decorative arts formed another cornerstone of the Art Novi tradition. On the other side of the Atlantic was France with many notable figures such as Georges de Fuer, Edward Colona and Eugene Keillard, while Louis Comfort Tiffany became the most associated name with the Art Nouveau movement in the United States.
Tiffany began her career as a painter in 1837, the heir to the Silver Empire of Tiffany & Co., founded by her father, Charles Louis Tiffany. After studying under George Innes, he began working in the decorative arts in the 1870s. Supported by enthusiastic patrons in New York, he produced elaborate interiors and filler metalwork, enamels, lamps and jewelry.
But Tiffany (as well as her leading rival John Lafarge) is so famous for her innovative fiction of lead glass, which turned out to be an American phenomenon. By 1881, his experiments in chemistry produced glass growth with a luminous coating that produced a dreamy, milky quality. Laurelton Hall, Tiffany’s Extensive Garden on Long Island, features surviving features, windows, porcelain tile and gardening with architectural features in full bloom. Tiffany created a revolutionary look by staining her glass in a colorful line and adding painted details to it before firing, which was very successful and allowed the company to expand into the empire of decorative art and jewelry that continues today.

WHY DOES ART NOUVEAU MATTER?

The success of Tiffany’s and other makeup artists testifies to the need to tear down the hierarchies between the arts of Art Novi. The rise of the print and graphic arts was similarly advanced, and unlike Tiffany’s most verified works, they could be recreated to enrich the lives of a wider public. Representations of Czech artist Alphonse Mucha’s La Femme Nouvel (Brave New Woman) are an illustration of the growing graphic advertisements that, like Jules Cerret, led to his unique belly-poke designs being considered the father of the modern poster. Even talented painters such as Henry de Toulouse-Lautrec and John Troupe were as famous for their graphic art as their canvases.
Following the vision of Eugene-Emmanuel Violet-Le-Duck, architects created new vocabularies with curved and cantilevered shapes using steel and other modern materials. The breathtaking Dussell House by Henry van de Velde and Victor Horda, excellent Belgian disciples of both Morris and Violet-Le-Duc, is an important place in this fluid architectural design. Other excellent examples came from Charles Rennie McIntosh and Margaret McDonald in Scotland; Otto Wagner in Austria; Louis Sullivan in the United States; And Anthony Ca de, known for his Gaza Mila and Sacramento Familia in Spanish Catalonia.

 

The decorative arts formed another cornerstone of the Art Novi tradition. On the other side of the Atlantic was France with many notable figures such as Georges de Fuer, Edward Colona, and Eugene Keillard, while Louis Comfort Tiffany became the most associated name with the Art Nouveau movement in the United States.
Tiffany began her career as a painter in 1837, the heir to the Silver Empire of Tiffany & Co., founded by her father, Charles Louis Tiffany. After studying under George Innes, he began working in the decorative arts in the 1870s. Supported by enthusiastic patrons in New York, he produced elaborate interiors and filler metalwork, enamels, lamps, and jewelry.
But Tiffany (as well as her leading rival John Lafarge) is so famous for her innovative fiction of lead glass, which turned out to be an American phenomenon. By 1881, his experiments in chemistry produced glass growth with a luminous coating that produced a dreamy, milky quality. Laurelton Hall, Tiffany’s Extensive Garden on Long Island, features surviving features, windows, porcelain tile and gardening with architectural features in full bloom. Tiffany created a revolutionary look by staining her glass in a colorful line and adding painted details to it before firing, which was very successful and allowed the company to expand into the empire of decorative art and jewelry that continues today.

Art Nouveau narrowed an essential gap between 19th-century aesthetics and 20th-century design. For example, Wassley Kandinsky and Ernst Ludwig Kirschner, two iconic modern painters, worked before moving on to their own style in Jugendst. But as it blossomed in the Western aesthetic landscape, Art Nouveau began to wither in the early 20th century. Eventually, the movement’s reputation caused an unplanned split between wealthy patrons and skilled workers. Once acclaimed for its flow and floral nature, it became the responsibility of English illustrator Walter Crane in 1903 to denounce it as a “strange ornamental disease”. By the 1920s, the style coupe de foot or whiplash was renamed the style branch de persil, or parsley sprig.

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